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What causes Cancer ?







Cancer arises from one single cell. The transformation from a normal cell into a tumour cell is a multistage process, typically a progression from a pre-cancerous lesion to malignant tumours. These changes are the result of the interaction between a person's genetic factors and three categories of external agents, including:
physical carcinogens, such as ultraviolet and ionizing radiation
chemical carcinogens, such as asbestos, components of tobacco smoke, aflatoxin
(a food contaminant) and arsenic (a drinking water contaminant)
colorectal (639 000 deaths)
biological carcinogens, such as infections from certain viruses, bacteria or parasites.

Some examples of infections associated with certain cancers:

Viruses: hepatitis B and liver cancer, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and cervical cancer,
and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi sarcoma.
Bacteria: Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer.
Parasites: schistosomiasis and bladder cancer.

Ageing is another fundamental factor for the development of cancer. The incidence of cancer rises dramatically with age, most likely due to a buildup of risks for specific cancers that increase with age. The overall risk accumulation is combined with the tendency for cellular repair mechanisms to be less effective as a person grows older.


Tobacco use, alcohol use, low fruit and vegetable intake, and chronic infections from hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and some types of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) are leading risk factors for cancer in low- and middle-income countries. Cervical cancer, which is caused by HPV, is a leading cause of cancer death among women in low-income countries. In high-income countries, tobacco use, alcohol use, and being overweight or obese are major risk factors for cancer.